AI chatbots and mental health apps

In Spring 2019, I took a Social Informatics course from Dr. Colin Rhinesmith.  During the class, I focused my research mostly on mental healthcare apps and LGBTQ mental healthcare needs.  This generated what I hope others find to be a helpful bibliography.  Please be aware that this bibliography was generated by Zotero and I have not made edits to it.

Bibliography: chatbots and other mental health apps

Compiled by A. Gamble

Bakker, D., Kazantzis, N., Rickwood, D., & Rickard, N. (2016). Mental Health Smartphone Apps: Review and Evidence-Based Recommendations for Future Developments. JMIR Mental Health, 3(1), e7.

Barak, A., Hen, L., Boniel-Nissim, M., & Shapira, N. (2008). A Comprehensive Review and a Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Internet-Based Psychotherapeutic Interventions. Journal of Technology in Human Services, 26(2–4), 109–160.

Bickmore, T., Gruber, A., & Picard, R. (2005). Establishing the computer–patient working alliance in automated health behavior change interventions. Patient Education and Counseling, 59(1), 21–30.

Breslau, J., & Engel, C. C. (n.d.). Information and Communication Technologies in Behavioral Health: A Literature Review with Recommendations for the Air Force. 65.

Brewer, J. A., Ruf, A., Beccia, A. L., Essien, G. I., Finn, L. M., Lutterveld, R. van, & Mason, A. E. (2018). Can Mindfulness Address Maladaptive Eating Behaviors? Why Traditional Diet Plans Fail and How New Mechanistic Insights May Lead to Novel Interventions. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1418.

Broussard, M. (2018). Artificial unintelligence : how computers misunderstand the world. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.

Champagne, R., Guerra, J., Tsai, C.-H., Monahan, J., & Farzan, R. (2015). Fuzziness in LGBT non-profit ICT use. Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies and Development – ICTD ’15, 1–4.

Cooke, N. A. (2017). Information services to diverse populations : developing culturally competent library professionals. Santa Barbara, California ; Denver, Colorado: Libraries Unlimited, an imprint of ABC-CLIO, LLC.

Craig, S. L., & McInroy, L. (2014). You Can Form a Part of Yourself Online: The Influence of New Media on Identity Development and Coming Out for LGBTQ Youth. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental Health, 18(1), 95–109.

D’Alfonso, S., Santesteban-Echarri, O., Rice, S., Wadley, G., Lederman, R., Miles, C., … Alvarez-Jimenez, M. (2017). Artificial Intelligence-Assisted Online Social Therapy for Youth Mental Health. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 796.

Eubanks, V. (2018). Automating inequality : how high-tech tools profile, police and punish the poor (First Edition.). New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press.

Fish, J., & Karban, K. (Eds.). (2015). Lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans health inequalities : international perspectives in social work. Bristol, UK ; Chicago, IL: Policy Press.

Fitzpatrick, K. K., Darcy, A., & Vierhile, M. (2017). Delivering Cognitive Behavior Therapy to Young Adults With Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety Using a Fully Automated Conversational Agent (Woebot): A Randomized Controlled Trial. JMIR Mental Health, 4(2), e19.

Garg, P., & Glick, S. (n.d.). AI’s Potential to Diagnose and Treat Mental Illness. 7.

Gieseking, J. J., Lingel, J., & Cockayne, D. (2018). Queer Internet studies recommended reading list. First Monday, 23(7).

Glenn, T., & Monteith, S. (2014). Privacy in the Digital World: Medical and Health Data Outside of HIPAA Protections. Current Psychiatry Reports, 16(11), 494.

Greenberg, A. S., Steinway, C., Wu, K., Thomas, B., Chuo, J., DiGiovine, M., … Rodgers, R. (2019). ROLE OF TELEMEDICINE IN THE TRANSITION FROM PEDIATRIC TO ADULT CARE. Journal of Adolescent Health, 2.

Grist, R., Cliffe, B., Denne, M., Croker, A., & Stallard, P. (2018). An online survey of young adolescent girls’ use of the internet and smartphone apps for mental health support. BJPsych Open, 4(4), 302–306.

Guerdjikova, A. I., O’Melia, A. M., Mori, N., McCoy, J., & McElroy, S. L. (2012). Binge eating disorder in elderly individuals. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 45(7), 905–908.

Koffi, B., Yazdanmehr, A., & Mahapatra, R. (n.d.). Mobile Health Privacy Concerns – A Systematic Review. 10.

Kretzschmar, K., Tyroll, H., Pavarini, G., Manzini, A., Singh, I., & NeurOx Young People’s Advisory Group. (2019). Can Your Phone Be Your Therapist? Young People’s Ethical Perspectives on the Use of Fully Automated Conversational Agents (Chatbots) in Mental Health Support. Biomedical Informatics Insights, 11, 117822261982908.

Kuhn, E., Greene, C., Hoffman, J., Nguyen, T., Wald, L., Schmidt, J., … Ruzek, J. (2014). Preliminary Evaluation of PTSD Coach, a Smartphone App for Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms. Military Medicine, 179(1), 12–18.

Kumah, C., Beheshti, J., & Bartlett, J. C. (2017). Mobile device use to access information on well-being: Mobile Device Use to Access Information on Well-being. Proceedings of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 54(1), 726–727.

Lester, R. J. (2015). Eating Disorders. In International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences (pp. 822–828).

Lindgreen, P., Lomborg, K., & Clausen, L. (2018). Patient Experiences Using a Self-Monitoring App in Eating Disorder Treatment: Qualitative Study. JMIR MHealth and UHealth, 6(6), e10253.

Lucas, G. M., Gratch, J., King, A., & Morency, L.-P. (2014). It’s only a computer: Virtual humans increase willingness to disclose. Computers in Human Behavior, 37, 94–100.

Luxton, D. D. (2014). Artificial intelligence in psychological practice: Current and future applications and implications. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 45(5), 332–339.

Ly, K. H., Ly, A.-M., & Andersson, G. (2017). A fully automated conversational agent for promoting mental well-being: A pilot RCT using mixed methods. Internet Interventions, 10, 39–46.

Mabe, A. G., Forney, K. J., & Keel, P. K. (2014). Do you “like” my photo? Facebook use maintains eating disorder risk: Facebook Use Maintains Risk. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 47(5), 516–523.

Meyer, E. T., Shankar, K., Willis, M., Sharma, S., & Sawyer, S. (2019). The social informatics of knowledge: The Social Informatics of Knowledge. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 70(4), 307–312.

Nicholson, J., Wright, S. M., & Carlisle, A. M. (2018). Pre-post, mixed-methods feasibility study of the WorkingWell mobile support tool for individuals with serious mental illness in the USA: a pilot study protocol. BMJ Open, 8(2), e019936.

Parker, L., Bero, L., Gillies, D., Raven, M., Mintzes, B., Jureidini, J., & Grundy, Q. (2018). Mental Health Messages in Prominent Mental Health Apps. The Annals of Family Medicine, 16(4), 338–342.

Peters, D., Deady, M., Glozier, N., Harvey, S., & Calvo, R. A. (2018). Worker Preferences for a Mental Health App Within Male-Dominated Industries: Participatory Study. JMIR Mental Health, 5(2), e30.

Rizvi, S. L., Dimeff, L. A., Skutch, J., Carroll, D., & Linehan, M. M. (2011). A Pilot Study of the DBT Coach: An Interactive Mobile Phone Application for Individuals With Borderline Personality Disorder and Substance Use Disorder. Behavior Therapy, 42(4), 589–600.

Saffran, K., Fitzsimmons-Craft, E. E., Kass, A. E., Wilfley, D. E., Taylor, C. B., & Trockel, M. (2016). Facebook usage among those who have received treatment for an eating disorder in a group setting: FACEBOOK USAGE AFTER EATING DISORDER TREATMENT. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 49(8), 764–777.

Satcher, D. (2001). Mental Health: Culture, Race, and Ethnicity—A Supplement to Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General. Retrieved from

Stiefel, S. (n.d.). “The Chatbot Will See You Now”: Mental Health Confidentiality Concerns in Software Therapy. Retrieved from

Sundgot-Borgen, J. (1999). Eating disorders among male and female elite athletes. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 33(6), 434–434.

Terry, N. P., & Gunter, T. D. (2018). Regulating mobile mental health apps. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 36(2), 136–144.

Torous, J., Levin, M. E., Ahern, D. K., & Oser, M. L. (2017). Cognitive Behavioral Mobile Applications: Clinical Studies, Marketplace Overview, and Research Agenda. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 24(2), 215–225.

Torous, J., Wisniewski, H., Liu, G., & Keshavan, M. (2018). Mental Health Mobile Phone App Usage, Concerns, and Benefits Among Psychiatric Outpatients: Comparative Survey Study. JMIR Mental Health, 5(4), e11715.

Torstveit, M. K., & Sundgot-Borgen, J. (2013). Eating Disorders in Male and Female Athletes. In R. J. Maughan (Ed.), The Encyclopaedia of Sports Medicine (pp. 513–525).

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